Ove Arup & Partners, Ireland

In Ireland, far more concrete blockwork is used for walling than any other material. Site skill levels have tended to lag behind progress in materials and design standards. The paper includes factors which affect the physical problems on site but arise before construction starts. These include cost limits, design approach, specification and tendering procedures. On site, apart from the direct actions of the tradesmen, standards will be affected by sub-contract arrangements, site management procedures and availability of suitable plant for handling material. Reference is made to special areas requiring attention in particular forms of construction, including reinforced blockwork and diaphragm walling.