No. 6, March 1994, Edited by: H W H West


I Properties of materials
1 Chemical Activation of Natural Pozzolans for Low-Cost Masonry Units
C Shi, R L Day and A Huizer 1

2 Compressive Strength of Tuff Bricks in Different Test Conditions – Some
Experimental Results
G Frunzio, C D’Onofrio and M Monaco 4

3 Mortar Cement Development in the United States
B A Wideman 10

4 Bricks Made with Clay and Power Station Ashes
H R Roman and F T Negreiros 12

5 Masonry of Solid Concrete Blocks Laid on Face
D M F Orr and M P Mannion 15

6 Mechanical Behaviour of Wall Panels Constructed from Compacted
Earth Blocks: Experimental and Numerical Investigations
M Olivier and Z El Gharbi 19

7 Characterisation of Mortars from Historic German Brick Buildings and
Requirements for Restoration Material
B Middendorf and D Knöfel 24

8 Influence of Unit Type on Creep and Shrinkage of Single Leaf Clay Brickwork
J J Brooks and J P Forth 31

9 Creep of Concrete Block Masonry
D Lenczner and R J Harvey 34

10 Effect of Cross Section Geometry on Long Term Deformation of
Clay Brickwork
J P Forth and J J Brooks 37

11 Strength Tests on Lightweight Concrete Walls with Masonry Veneer Leaves
H E Jensen 40

II Non destructive testing and thermal behaviour of masonry
12 The Thermal Performance of European Autoclaved Aerated Concrete
W R Millard 44

13 Thermal Conductivity of Traditional Mortar
J A Tinker and A O’Rourke 48

14 Influence of Water Vapour Sorption on the Thermal Behaviour of
Mortar Samples
A D Bueno, P C Phillippi and R Lamberts 52

15 The Use of Monitoring to Analyse Damaged Masonry Structures
R Cerioni, G Donida, A Farina and A Spagnoli 55

16 A Screw Pull-out Test for Assessing Masonry Materials In-situ
W A Ferguson 62

17 The Role of Impulse Radar in the Investigation, Restoration and Change
of Use of Old Buildings
J D Baston-Pitt 67

18 Establishing Quantity Estimates and Levels of Certainty in Predicting
Structural Damage: A Masonry Case Study
W B Fairley, A J Izenman and A R Whitlock 72

III Materials and Construction
19 Brickwork and the Modern Movement
M Whitby 83

20 The Use of Very Large Masonry Blocks of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete
E Kober and C Jacob 85

21 A Survey of Failed Free-standing Walls
S Osmond 87

22 The Development of Bed Joint Reinforcement Over Two Decades
O Pfeffermann and B A Haseltine 91

23 The Shellstone System: Interlocking Calcium Silicate or Concrete Blocks
H Werner 94

IV Shear effects in masonry structures
24 Racking Tests on Hollow Clay Masonry Walls
C Amadio and S Rajgelj 99

25 Effects of Inter-Storey Drift on the In-Plane Capacity of Infilled Walls
R D Flanagan and R M Bennett 104

26 Tests on Steel Frames with Reinforced Masonry Infilling
A W Hendry and T C Liauw 108

27 Assessment of a New Masonry Shear Strength Test
J R Riddington and P Jukes 115

V Structural behaviour
28 Mechanical Properties of Masonry
W J Beranek and G J Hobbelman 119

29 The Compressive Strength of Cavity Walls Containing Butterfly Wall Ties
G J Edgell 126

30 Changes in the Position of the Neutral Axis in Masonry Joints under
Combinations of Direct Loads and Bending Moments
A N Fried 130

31 Masonry Unit Shape Factor from Test Results
F M Khalaf and A W Hendry 136

32 A Numerical Study of Shape Factors for Masonry Units Using the
Finite Element Method
B Kralj, J Middleton and G N Pande 140

33 An Evaluation of Masonry Wall-Foundation Interaction Using Finite
Element Method
A J Valsangkar, J L Dawe and C K Seah 144

VI Strength
34 Analysis of Results of Compressive Strength Testing
G J Edgell, S K Arora and R C de Vekey 147

35 The Effect of One Weaker Block on the Compressive Strength of AAC Wallettes
C A Fudge and G R Sargeant 165

36 Masonry Column Tests
M E Phipps, A J Bell and T Swailes 168

37 Stress Distribution Under Axial Compression in Masonry Walls
Containing Distorted (Curved) Bricks
A L M Mauroof and M Qamaruddin 173

38 The Behaviour of Laterally Loaded Masonry Panels with Openings
V L Chong, C Southcombe and I May 178

VII Response of masonry to the environment
39 A Review of Stages of Damage of Brickwork Due to Salt Crystallization
E N Caner-Saltik, I Schumann and L Franke 183

40 The Effect of Weathering on the Flexural Strength of Masonry
R C de Vekey 188

41 Testing the Frost Resistance of Calcium Silicate Units for Use in
Exposed Masonry
D Kasten and W Eden 192

42 The Changes Which Occur in Bricks Due to Environmental Influences
R Nöller 196

43 The Influence of Moisture on the Crack Resistance of Masonry Built
with AAC or LWA Concrete Blocks
K Zeus 199

VIII Arches and stone masonry buildings
44 Studies of Settlements and Crack Damage in Old and New Facades
D Cook 203

45 Aspects of Stability and Strength of Stone Masonry Structures
A W Hendry 212

46 The Behaviour of Multi-Ring Brickwork Arch Bridges Containing
Ring Separation
C Melbourne and M Gilbert 218

47 The Behaviour of Multi-Span Masonry Arch Bridges
C Melbourne and M Wagstaff 225

48 Investigations into the Structural Behaviour of Natural Stone Masonry
Ahmad Sabha 231

IX Reinforced and prestressed masonry
49 Prediction of Stress Relaxation in Structural Clay Masonry from Creep
P R Bingel and J J Brooks 234

50 Crack Development in Infill Concrete for Reinforced Masonry
I El-Saie, G A Khoury and J B Newman 239

51 The Testing of a Deep Prestressed Brickwork Diaphragm Wall to Failure
S W Garrity and T G Garwood 244

52 Thermal Loading of Post-tensioned Diaphragm Walls: Temperature and
Prestressing Effects
N G Shrive and A Huizer 248

53 The Shear Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Blockwork Beams
J J Roberts 253

54 The Architectural Potential of Bed Joint Reinforced Masonry
J M Adell 259

X Structural codes and fire behaviour
55 An Alternative Approach for Reduction Factors for Masonry Walls
Based on Plastic Behaviour
J Morton 263

56 Research Data on Compressive Strength of Masonry Walls:
Implications for EC6 and ISO Masonry Codes
S K Arora and G J Edgell 269

57 Some Comparative Studies of British, EC and ISO Masonry Codes
A L Taylor and S K Arora 274

58 Sensitivity Case Study of Parameters in European Masonry Codes
H J Vekemans 279

59 Experience of Fire Behaviour of Masonry and the Proposed CEN
Standard for Assessment
C Hahn 285

XI Refurbishment and conservation
60 A Numerical Approach for Modelling the Effect of Persistent Loads on
Masonry Structures
E Papa, L Binda and A Nappi 290

61 Multi-storey Brickwork Structures – Some Problems and Remedies
K Thomas 295

62 Restructuring the Outer Wall of a 23 Storey Block Using Thick Masonry
B Bird 299

63 Seismic Retrofitting of Reinforced Concrete Frames Using Masonry
Stiffening of Columns
J B Mander, J M Bracci and A M Reinhorn 302

64 Stabilising Old Masonry With Glass Fibre Reinforced Composite Ties
M Faoro 309

65 Cross-Section Supplements to Increase the Bending Stability of Masonry Walls
E Gunkler 313

65 Papers, 318 pp, published in 1994