Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Division of Theory of Structures


This study mainly focuses on the effectiveness of using wooden ties on the behaviour of historic stone masonry vaults. The problem is considered through an example of a real conservation case study of the Firdevs Bey Antique Bazaar in Isparta. Both gravity and seismic effects are numerically taken into account using FEM analysis with SAP2000. After detailed architectural and structural site investigations, structural weaknesses of the building like cracking, material flaws, and inappropriate interventions over the course of time were determined. It was concluded that the major structural problems were the missing wooden ties of the vault and the excessive roof load resulting from irregular infills. Two retrofit strategies were developed, namely replacing the missing wooden ties with new ties and removing excessive roof load from the building. The whole building was then modeled for the present case (i.e. without ties and with heavy roof load) and the retrofitted case (i.e. with wooden ties and with light roof load). The principle normal stresses before and after the retrofitting process is compared. Numerical results show that these stresses after retrofit are significantly reduced up to 57% of the non-retrofitted case for gravity loads and 60% of the non-retrofitted case for earthquake loads. The selected retrofit strategy was approved by architectural historians and restorators since the structural intervention was less and the building was nearly returned to its original form and factor of safety.

Key words
Wooden Ties, Masonry Vaults, Modeling, Retrofitting, Earthquake