JOHN KNAPTON Newcastle University

In recent years there has been growing vandalism in cemeteries and lawn memorials have been pushed over, often by children. Lawn memorials were introduced into British cemeteries in the mid 1950s to reduce the maintenance costs of the traditional kerbed grave surround. A masonry memorial on a narrow base at the end of the grave enables the remainder of the cemetery, including the grave site, to be landscaped and easily kept in good condition. The lawn memeorial is inherently unstable. Tests show that forces of 200kg can be sufficient to push them over. They weigh typically 250kg and are therefore dangerous when pushed over or loosened by vandals or accidental impact with mantenance equipment. The development of a ground anchor, the Newcastle Anchor, which prevents lawn memorials being pushed over, is described. The paper shows how concrete dowel bar technology has been adopted to ensure strength and stability in the connection of headstone to base. Different types of stone are dealt with and the provision of foundation material and drainage are described.