University of Sheffield University of Liverpool University of Teesside

Dynamic out-of-plane impact tests have been performed on a number of reinforced masonry walls under laboratory conditions. The tested walls were constructed to be representative of masonry bridge parapets and varied in length from 9m to 20m, The first walls tested were reinforced with 6mm diameter stainless steel deformed bars placed in the bed-joints. The loading impulse was designed to approximately simulate that applied by a car accidentally impacting a wall at mid-length.
In parallel with the testing work finite element modelling has been carried out using LS-DYNA, a three-dimensional non-linear explicit finite element program. This paper describes a modelling approach suitable for bed-joint reinforced walls in more detail. As for the unreinforced walls modelled previously, a discrete modelling approach was employed, whereby individual masonry units were modelled separately using 8-noded brick elements. The reinforcement was modelled using thin shell elements located in the bed-joints between masonry courses.
The models correctly predict that long (20m) bed-joint reinforced walls are prone to bedding-plane sliding failures when subject to lateral impacts.