1 Senior Project Consultant, Thornton Tomasetti, MFaliva@ThorntonTomasetti.com


In the late 1800s and early 1900s, the introduction of steel in construction practice lead to the development of new structural schemes, establishing the basis for what would become the modern skyscraper. The change from traditional bearing masonry walls has been gradual and the two structural concepts co-existed in multi-story buildings for some time. This paper illustrates through case studies typical features of masonry-clad, steel-framed buildings, the effects of steel deterioration on brick, stone, and terra-cotta, and possible remediation to contrast it. Examples of design recommendations taken from historical literature will be presented.


Keywords: Conservation, steel, traditional masonry, hybrid structures, New York City