1) PhD Candidate, University of Calgary Schulich School of Engineering, Civil Engineering,

2) PhD, Professor, University of Calgary Schulich School of Engineering, Civil Engineering,


The Hudson Bay Trading Company constructed the Prince of Wales Fort in the early 18th century with the goal of securing the fur trade in northern Canada. As a result of the fort’s northern latitude it has been subjected to extreme temperatures and freeze thaw cycles causing a gradual break down and washout of the mortar within its stone masonry walls. This has led to lateral deformation of sections of the wall in some areas, and collapse in others. Restoration of the severely damaged sections was begun within the last decade, but meanwhile, sections of wall that were previously in good condition have begun to show signs of distress. Development of a conservation plan to prevent further degradation was deemed essential, and various techniques will be assessed through finite element analysis. Two dimensional finite element models have been formulated to represent the in-situ conditions of a damaged wall section before and after grout injection. The models were created in Abaqus and focus on the case of self-weight. Micro-modelling techniques were employed to model the stones and grout individually. Through these models various material properties were implemented and their effect on the stability of the wall section assessed.


Keywords: Finite element modelling, multi wythe masonry, grout injection, restoration, heritage structures