1 Pr., Univ. Orléans, PRISME EA 4229,

2 Dr., Univ. Orléans, PRISME EA 4229,

3 Dr., Univ. Orléans, PRISME EA 4229,

4 Dr., Tata Steel, Ceramics Research Centre,


Many bottom linings of refractory ceramic structures used in steel making industry are made of masonries with or without mortar. Several designs are possible, parallel, fish bone or radial, with different joint thicknesses and different refractory materials. To compare the influence of these designs on the level of stress and displacements in the outside steel shell, the different masonries were modelled by an equivalent homogeneous material. The thermo-mechanical properties of this equivalent material were determined using a periodic homogenization method. They are temperature depending and depend of the joint states in the case of masonries with dry joints (i.e. without mortar). This masonry model is used to simulate by the finite element method the behaviour of the bottom part of a simplified steel ladle. It demonstrates the influence of different parameters: presence or not of joints, dry joints/mortar joints, thickness of mortar joints, masonry design, refractory material.


Keywords: Refractory masonry linings, thermo-mechanical modelling, joints with and without mortar, finite element simulations, bottom lining designs.