1) Professor of Architectural Restoration, University of Florence, DIDA-Dept. of Architecture,


The traditional construction technique in Tuscany, region marked by the availability of abundant stone materials, has encouraged the making of masonries characterized by a double facing.

This technique is also used in tower buildings. The case studies of the bell towers of the Badia and of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, of the Cathedral of Siena, of San Biagio in Montepulciano, and of the towers of the Praetorian Palace of Sinalunga and of the Bargello Palace in Florence are exposed.

Where partial demolition of the wall or incompleteness of construction are present, the inner core of the wall is visible and it is possible to describe the wall structure. In other cases, the information given by archival sources, original observations from direct surveys, different interior and exterior facing, use of wooden ties inserted in the masonry, the doubling of the thickness occurred during the construction, make this examination particularly interesting.


Keywords: Tuscany, Medieval architecture, Renaissance architecture, Towers, Bell towers, Double facing masonry