1) Dr Civil Engineer, Independent Researcher,20 Papanikolaou str. 17342, Athens, Greece, e-mail:


This paper presents a practical and cost effective methodology for the interpretation of permanent displacements of ancient retaining structures, due to seismic loading. The methodology based on typical 2-D FE pseudostatic back analyses aims a) to evaluate the proper modeling of the wall structure b) to calibrate the mechanical parameters from geomaterials involved c) to verify the action responsible for the structural damage. The proposed methodology is illustrated with three characteristic case studies of ancient retaining structures, dating back to the classical era: the Athenian Acropolis South Wall (mixed masonry structure), the Athenian Acropolis North Wall (dry masonry structure) and the retaining wall of the Sanctuary of Amphiaraos at Oropos, Attica (dry masonry structure). This simple methodology may become an efficient and cost effective tool for the interpretation of the structural history of a monument as well as for the design of restoration/protection measures.


Keywords: Monuments, Ancient Retaining Walls, Earthquake, permanent displacements, Pseudostatic analyses, Acropolis, Amphiaraeion Oropos.