Department of Architectural Constructions, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
During the last decades of the 19th century and the first years of the 20th century, in Spain, and especially in Madrid, a singular architecture was developed. It is characterized by a great versatility and richness of shapes based on the use of the header bond. This architecture is effected by wall structures with facing bricks in the façades and cladding on the inside.
Since 1920 a series of changes has taken place in the organization of masonry brickwork. This is due to the introduction of steel and concrete framed structures in buildings, as well as to the increasing industrialization of the construction elements. In addition, regarding formal aspects, the new European rationalist tendencies began to be considered. As a result, brickwork masonry started an evolution towards doubled solutions and enclosures, interrupted during the Civil War (1936-39) and followed during the 1940’s.
This paper analyzes the constructive organization of the façade bricks, both in walls and openings (lintels and arches), of the most representative buildings of the period in order to draw conclusions about the constructive evolution of each one of them, and of their complete façade.