F. M. Khalaf* University of Edinburgh, Scotland


A two-dimensional finite element analysis was used to study the behaviour of unfilled, partially and completely filled single-block specimens and two-block prisms axially loaded parallel to the bed faces, simulating the top compression zone in a reinforced masonry beam or part of a wall in a seismic zone where very high horizontal forces are expected. The method was used to find the elastic vertical, lateral and shear stress at any point in the specimens and to predict the initiation of cracking and mode of failure. The analysis relates directly to products and construction practice in North America.