PAULO B. LOURENCO University o/Minho, Portugal


Key aspects regarding the modelling of masonry subjected to out-of-plane loading are presented, including through thickness integration, comparison with experimental data on masonry strength and yield-line design. The issues, resulting from advanced non-linear analyses that make use of a sophisticated constitutive model of masonry, are presented in a simple and clear way. It is expected that the discussion should be helpful for practitioners and researchers involved with numerical analyses and development of code provisions.