A.W. PAGE, J. KAUTTO, P.W. KLEEMAN The University of Newcastle, NSW

Wall ties are an essential component of cavity or veneer walls. The behaviour of these walls is complex and a function of the relative stiffness of the outer and inner leaves, the support conditions for each leaf and the stiffness of the ties themselves. In veneer construction the outer leaf relies on the wall ties for support and the magnitude and distribution of the forces in the ties is directly influenced by the flexibility of the backup. Consequently the distribution of the forces in the wall ties is markedly different for the flexible and stiff backup cases. For cavity construction with both leaves supported, the ties are less important, but their properties will still influence the degree of load sharing between the inner and outer leaf. This paper describes an analytical study of the behaviour of veneer and cavity walls, and presents simplified methods for the design of wall ties for wind loading in both veneer and cavity construction.